1.  Seat Belts
2.  Drowsy Driving
3.  Distracted Driving
4.  Aggressive Driving/Road Rage
5.  Motorcycle Safety
6.  Impaired Driving
7.  Novice Drivers
8.  School Bus Safety
9.  Airbags
10.  Railway Safety
11.  Trucks
12.  Motor Vehicles
  1. Alcohol and Non-Alcohol Fatalities by Ethnic Group
  2. Alcohol and Office Parties
  3. Alcohol Crash Facts
  4. Alcohol-Related deaths decline, safety belts continue to save lives
  5. Alcohol Use and the College Freshman
  6. Cost of Alcohol Related Traffic Crash Injuries
  7. Deadly Decision - No Alcohol for Teenage Project
  8. "Designated Drivers" may Still be Driving Drunk
  9. Drunk Driving Fact Sheet
  10. Eight Points For Parents: Speaking With College Students About Alcohol
  11. Gallop Poll finds Drunk Driving Top Concern
  12. Holiday Safety Tips
  13. Illinois Booklet Profiles Average DUI Offender
  14. Illinois Legislation Targets Repeat DUI Offenders
  15. Impaired Driving
  16. Lights on for Life Day
  17. Keys to Keeping your Friends and Family Alive
  18. MADD Celebrates 20 years
  19. Making the Link between Alcohol and Other Drugs and Impaired Driving, Injury, and Trauma
  20. Myths and Facts about Alcohol and Driving
  21. National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month
  22. NHTSA Presents 1999 Statistics of Alcohol Involvement in Fatal Crashes
  23. Non-Alcoholic "Mocktails"
  24. Rating the States 2000 - Composite State Grades
  25. Secretary Slater Announces Another Year of Progress for Highway Safety
  26. Stricter Laws could Combat Hard-Core Drinking Drivers
  27. Stronger Laws Can Reduce Alcohol-Related Traffic Deaths
  28. Traffic Deaths Tied to Alcohol at Record Low
  29. Use It & Lose It -- The War on Drunk Driving
  30. Young Adult Drinking Drivers
  31. 1999 FARS Data: Alcohol-Related Fatalities Drop
  32. 1999 FARS Data: Safety Belt use up

Alcohol and Non-Alcohol Fatalities by Ethnic Group

  Alcohol No Alcohol Percent Alcohol
White 65,309 82,737 44.1%
African American 11,072 12,453 47.1%
Native American 2,197 804 73.2%
Asian/Pacific Islander 1,094 2,942 27.1%
Mexican 7,968 5,387 59.7%
Puerto Rican 529 654 44.7%
Cuban 240 473 33.7%
Central/South American 1,005 961 51.1%
Other Hispanic/Unknown 1,834 1,657 52.5%
Total 91,248 108,068 45.8%

Note: Alcohol crash = fatality occurred in a crash in which at least one active participant had a non-zero BAC.

Source: Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Prevention Research Center, 1999.

This document was last updated on May 30, 1999.

Back to Table of Contents


Alcohol Crash Facts

Using the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) criteria for Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), it is estimated that an alcohol crash occurs every 32 minutes. NHTSA defines an alcohol-related fatal crash as one that was reported by a law enforcement agency and involved a vehicle operator or a non-occupant (e.g., pedestrian) with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.01 grams per deciliter (0.01 g/dl) or greater. In 1997, 16,189 alcohol-related fatalities occurred, 38.6% of the total fatalities for the year.

In other NHTSA statistics, alcohol-related fatalities for large truck operators declined by almost 60%, the largest such decline noted. Nearly one-third of the pedestrians 16 years or older who were killed by automobiles were intoxicated, i.e., had a BAC of 0.01 g/dl. In 1997, 29% of all fatal crashes that took place on weekdays involved alcohol. This percentage increased to 52% on weekends. For all crashes, the alcohol involvement on weekends was 12% and on weekdays, 5%. Alaska had the highest rate of fatal alcohol-related crashes using the FARS criteria and comparing total traffic fatalities to any alcohol involvement. (See Table 1.) Utah had the lowest rate. (See Table 2.)

In 1996 and 1997, approximately 1.5 million individuals were arrested for drunk or drugged driving. This is a ratio of one out of every 122 licensed vehicle operators.

For further information on alcohol involvement in traffic fatalities, contact the National Center for Statistics and Analysis, NRD-31, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20590; (800) 934-8517; fax (202) 366-7078 (ask for publication number DOT HS 808 764). General information on highway traffic safety can be accessed at www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/ncsa.

Table 1
States With Highest Rates of Fatal Alcohol-Related Crashes
Alaska 52.8%
Texas 49.8%
North Dakota 47.8%
Massachusetts 47.4%
Arizona 45.5%
Table 2
States With Lowest Rates of Fatal Alcohol-Related Crashes
Utah 20.6%
New York 27.4%
Arkansas 29.2%
Kansas 29.5%
Wyoming 31.5%

This document was last updated on February 25,2001.

Back to Table of Contents


Alcohol-Related Deaths Decline, Safety Belts Continue To Save Lives

Alcohol-related traffic fatalities declined slightly in 1998, improving on the `997 historic low. New data from the Department of Transportation show that alcohol was involved in15,935 deaths or 38.4 percent of traffic fatalities in 1998.

Total fatalities dropped from 42,013 in 1997 to 41,471 in 1998. Alcohol-related fatalities dropped from 16,189 in 1997 to 15,935 in 1998. The rate of alcohol-related crashes per 100,000 for youth ages 15-20 was the lowest since record keeping this type of crash began in 1982.

Also on the decline are crash-related injuries. They dropped from 3.4 million in 1997 to 3.2 million in 1998. Last year, the fatality rate per 100 million vehicle miles traveled (VMT) remained at the same historic low level of 1.6.

Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) estimate that 12,131 people were saved by air bags and safety belts in 1998. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration stresses that 56 percent of passenger car occupants and 74 percent of light truck occupants killed in 1998 were not wearing safety belts.

NHTSA administrator Ricardo Martinez, M.D., believes these findings underscore the importance of wearing safety belts: "It isn't a cliché. Buckling up really can save your life," he said.

Some other facts FARS data revealed:

  • Fatalities involving large trucks dropped from 5,398 in 1997 to 5,374 in 1998.
  • Motorcycle deaths increased 8 percent from 2,116 in 1997 to 2,284 in 1998.
  • Pedestrian deaths dropped 2 percent from 5,321 in 1997 to 5,220 in 1998.
  • Rural interstate deaths rose from 3,040 in 1997 to 3,095 in 1998.
  • Of the 963 under-21 drinking drivers killed in crashes, 798 were killed at night.

The District of Columbia had the highest percentage of alcohol-related deaths in 1998 with 50.8 percent, followed by Texas (50.1 percent) and Nevada (49 percent). Utah had the lowest percentage of alcohol-related fatalities in 1998, 14.4 percent, followed by New York with 24.4 percent.

About $43 million in NHTSA incentive grants will be awarded this month to qualified states that create programs aimed at stopping drunk driving and increasing the use of safety belts and child safety seats. Information from FARS is available on the Internet at www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/ncsa/

This document was last updated on October 6, 1999.

Back to Table of Contents


Cost of Alcohol-Related Traffic Crash Injuries

Pie Chart of Costs of Alcohol-Related Crashes
  • Alcohol was involved in 17,461 (44 Percent) of the 40,115 traffic crashes that occurred in 1993.
  • In 1990, 1.2 million people were injured in crashes involving alcohol, and that is 22 percent of all motor vehicle crash victims.
  • A total of 394,000 (7 Percent) of all police-reported crashes of all severities in 1992 were alcohol related.
  • Alcohol was reported as a factor in 5 percent of all property-damage crashes.
  • These alcohol-related crashes, injuries, and fatalities cost society at least $46 billion in lost productivity, medical costs, property damage, and other direct expenditures. Over $5 billion of these cost was for health care.
  • Alcohol-related fatalities in 1992 alone resulted in over 600,000 years of potential life lost before age 65 for the victims.

Back to Table of Contents


Deadly Decision - No Alcohol for Teenagers Project

Don't Drink and Drive

In Illinois, the campaign against drunk driving is starting to show results. The cooperative effort involving legislation, enforcement and education is proving that it is possible to influence people not to drink and drive. This effort must be continued because the problem is still far from being under control. One of the positive points emerging from this campaign is that related statistics regarding teenagers are showing positive gains. However, traffic crashes are still the single greatest cause of death for the 15-20 year old age group. Nearly one-half of these deaths are alcohol related. This percentage creates serious concerns since all states and the District of Columbia have legislation enforcing a minimum drinking age of 21. One major problem with teenage drinking and driving is the availability of alcoholic beverages to this age group. It is the purpose of this webpage to explore this problem with emphasis on:

Why Do Teens Choose to Drink?

Social Contact
When a non-drinker associates with a group that consumes alcohol, a lot of pressure is exerted on the non-drinker to drink with the group. Most teenagers want to be accepted, but they make the wrong choices even thought they are familiar with D.U.I. (Driving Under the Influence) legislation and the effects alcohol has on the human body.

Relaxation
Like many adult drinkers, this age group likes to get together with a group and drink to relax and unwind.

Escape
The teenage years are an emotional time for many young people because of situations at home, school, dating and others that involve conflict. A lot of them feel alcohol offers a chance to unwind and get away from reality.

Associate Alcohol Use with Adult Behavior
Teenagers and pre-teenagers are very impressionable. If alcohol use and excessive drinking is treated lightly in the house, this age group tends to develop positive attitudes toward drinking. The constant barrage of ads in the newspapers, magazines and on T.V. portray drinking to be "cool" and a lot of fun for all those who are participating.

Defiance
Drinking becomes attractive to many teenagers because it is illegal. Participation in forbidden activities is a way for them to rebel.


How Do Teens Obtain Alcoholic Beverages?


Friends or Relatives of Legal Age
Even though individuals face stiff penalties for obtaining alcoholic beverages, many choose to obtain alcohol for the underage drinker. In some instances the individual may be an employee of a vendor that sells alcohol.

Wait Outside an Establishment That Sells Alcohol and Asks an Older Customer to Make the Purchase
The individual who accommodates the teenagers request faces stiff penalties for this action

Steal the Alcohol
Many times, the young drinker is able to obtain alcohol at home or when visiting relatives or friends. Adult drinkers who have a supply of alcohol in the home should monitor their inventory. In some cases, the teenagers have stolen liquor from a neighbor's garage, their own basement or other places where alcohol is left unattended.

Purchase the Alcohol Personally
Older teenagers purchase alcohol without being checked for identification. False identification is used by many teenagers to buy alcohol while others are served even though their identification shows they are under twenty-one years of age.

Parents Provide the Alcohol
A lot of times a parent buys alcohol to help a teenager celebrate a special event. A strategy parents sometimes use is to provide alcohol at home in order to keep the young drinkers and their friends off the road.


Where Do Teens Purchase Alcohol?

In recent years, many different types of establishments such as convenience stores, supermarkets and service stations have started selling alcoholic beverages.


Possible Solutions to this Problem

The teenage driver is involved in far too many alcohol-related crashes in proportion to the number of licensed drivers in this age group. Part of the campaign against teenage drinking and driving is going to involve restricting the access teenagers have to alcohol. Legislation provides strict penalties for establishments that sell alcohol to underage drinkers. Even with massive educational and legislative efforts being directed toward this easy access problem, more help is needed to control the situation. The public can play a crucial role in this effort by reporting establishments that sell to underage drinkers. The proper authorities should be notified of these incidents. The effort should not stop with notification. If satisfaction is not achieved, community meetings, letters to editors of newspapers, letters and phone calls to legislators and other elected officials should be generated. Access to alcohol can be restricted, with persistent efforts.

For more information, contact the:
Illinois Department of Public Health
Division of Emergency Medical Services
525 West Jefferson Street, Third Floor
Springfield, Illinois 62761
217-785-2080
TDD 217-785-2089

Produced by the Illinois Department of Public Health in cooperation with the Illinois Department of Transportation and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

Back to Table of Contents


"Designated Drivers" May Still be Drinking

When college students go out on the town, they're likely to designate a driver who will remain sober. But that driver doesn't always refrain from drinking, and having a designated driver may allow passengers to drink more than they otherwise would have, a study found.

Researchers William DeJong and Jay A. Winsten surveyed 17,592 students at 140 U.S. colleges and universities to find out about the students' drinking habits. Overall, 37% of the students who had consumed alcohol in the past year said they rode with a designated driver in the past month. But having a driver who was safe meant these students were likely to drink more than they otherwise might have: 22% claimed that although they did not normally engage in binge drinking, they had done so when there was a designated driver. (Binge drinking is defined as having five drinks in a row for males or four drinks in a row for females.)

What's more, while the passengers who ride with a designated driver may tend to engage in heavier drinking because they feel they will get home safely, the designated drivers themselves do not always abstain from alcohol. Twelve percent of the students classified as "drinkers" in the study admitted to drinking five or more beers when they themselves were the designated driver, and five percent of habitual binge drinkers said they continued to binge drink when they were the designated driver. Although these percentages may seem relatively small compared to the total number of drivers, they do represent students who have had a significant amount to drink. Moreover, 23 percent of designated drivers said that they had one drink, which means that in total about 40 percent of all designated drivers have been drinking.

College students widely use the designated driver system to avoid driving while they are inebriated, and if properly used the system does prevent alcohol-related crashes. However, the consistency with which the designated driver strategy is applied and the seriousness with which students take the role leave much to be desired. Combining the idea of designating a driver with emphasis on the importance of remaining sober would be key steps in making the roads safer for motorists.

Back to Table of Contents


Illinois Drunk Driving Fact Sheet

Family Circus Cartoon
The Magnitude of the Problem
  • Nearly two out of every five Americans will be involved in an alcohol-related traffic crash in their lifetime
  • Each year, in the U.S., about 600,000 - 10 percent - of all police-reported motor vehicle crashes are alcohol-related.
  • In Illinois during 1996, 44,710 people were arrested for DUI with 90 percent of these people losing their driving privileges.
  • The proportion of fatal crashes in Illinois that are alcohol-related is approximately four times greater at night than during the day.
  • Nationally, each year, about 534,000 people suffer injuries in alcohol-related traffic crashes, an average of one person injured every minute. About 40,000 of these are serious injuries.

Blood Alcohol Concentration
  • A blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of .08 or greater is the level at which a driver is considered legally intoxicated in Illinois.
  • A driver can also be arrested and prosecuted for Driving Under the Influence (DUI) with a BAC of .05 but less than .08.
  • In 1996, 43 percent of fatally injured drivers who were tested for a BAC level were found to have been drinking, and 38 percent had a BAC of .08 or greater.

  • Drunk Driving and Young People
  • Although 16-24 year olds comprise of only 15 percent of the licensed drivers in the state, they are involved in 29 percent of all fatal alcohol-related crashes.
  • In 1996, nearly 15 percent of the fatally-injured teenaged drivers were intoxicated.
  • 214 young adult drivers between 16 and 24 years old were killed in fatal crashes in 1996. Of these, 79 had a BAC level of .08 or greater.
  • Nearly 24 percent of the fatally-injured teenage drivers (age 16-19) were drinking prior to their crash, with 62 percent of these at legally intoxicated levels.
  • Of the 359 drivers involved in fatal crashes in 1996 and found to be legally intoxicated, 28 percent were 24 years of age or younger.
  • Over 30 percent of the fatally-injured drivers under age 21 who were tested for BAC were drinking prior to their crash. 20 percent were at .08 BAC or greater.
  • In Illinois, in 1996, 118 children under the age of 16 were killed in motor vehicle crashes.
  • Illinois' zero tolerance law became effective January 1, 1995. Since then, there have been 5,615 zero tolerance violations recorded.

  • Safety Belts and Alcohol
  • Safety belts were used by approximately 12.8 percent of fatally injured intoxicated drivers as compared to 33 percent of sober drivers kill in crashes.
  • Drivers involved in fatal crashes who have been drinking use safety belts at a substantially lower rate than sober drivers.
  • Back to Table of Contents

    Eight Points For Parents: Speaking With College Students About Alcohol

    Any parent who reads the newspaper or watches television news has seen the tragic and frightening stories about excessive drinking on campus. Parents must talk with their college-age children about the impact of binge drinking on their own lives and their responsibilities to themselves and peers. Parents should have candid discussions before packing students off to college and also during weekend, holiday and summer visits home. Build your conversations around eight key points:

    1. Set clear, realistic expectations for academic performance.
    Studies show that partying may contribute as much to a student's decline in grades as the difficulty of the academic work. If students know parents expect sound academic work, they're likely to be more devoted to studies and have less time to get in trouble with alcohol.

    2. Stress that alcohol consumption is illegal for people under 21, and excessive consumption can be toxic and even fatal.
    Students die every year from alcohol poisoning. Tell your children not to drink if they are under 21. For students of legal age, discourage dangerous drinking, e.g., drinking games, fraternity hazing, etc. Ask students to intervene when they see someone participating in dangerous drinking.

    3. Tell students to intervene when classmates are in trouble with alcohol.
    Nothing is more tragic than an unconscious student left to die while others either fail to recognize that the student is in jeopardy or fail to call for help due to fear of getting the student in trouble.

    4. Tell students to stand up for their right to a safe academic environment.
    Students who don't drink can be affected by those who do, ranging from interrupted study time to assault or unwanted sexual advances. Students can confront these problems by discussing them with offenders. If that fails, they should notify the housing director or other residence hall staff.

    5. Know the alcohol scene on campus and talk to students about it.
    Students grossly exaggerate alcohol and other drug use by peers. A recent survey found that University of Oregon students believed 96 percent of their peers drank at least once a week, when the actual rate was 52 percent. Peer-influenced students tend to "drink up" to the perceived norm, so it's important to clear up misperceptions.

    6. Avoid tales of drinking exploits from your own college years.
    Entertaining students with stories of drinking back in "the good old days" normalizes what, even then, was abnormal behavior. It also appears to give parental approval to dangerous and, for people under 21, illegal alcohol consumption.

    7. Encourage students to volunteer
    Volunteerism helps students to develop job skills and experience. Helping others gives students a broader outlook and healthier perspective. Volunteer work on campus helps students connect with their school, increasing the likelihood of staying in college.

    8. Make it clear-underage alcohol consumption and driving after drinking are against the law.
    Parents should make it clear that they don't condone law-breaking. Parents should openly and clearly express disapproval of underage drinking and dangerous alcohol consumption. Parents who drink should present a positive role model in the responsible use of alcohol.

    College Parents of America (CPA) is the only national membership association dedicated to helping parents prepare and put their children through college easily, economically and safely. Call toll-free 1-888-256-4627, visit http://www.collegeparents.org, or write College Parents of America, 700 Thirteenth Street, N.W., Suite 950, Washington, DC 20005.

    This document was last updated on May 30, 1999.

    Back to Table of Contents


    Gallup Poll Finds Drunk Driving Top Concern; MADD Celebrates 20 Years

    Seventy-two percent of drivers believe 0.08 percent blood alcohol concentration (BAC) legislation will reduce drunk driving, according to a new Gallup survey. Sixty-four percent of drivers held this view in a 1993 survey.

    Driving under the influence of alcohol or other drugs was cited as the number one highway safety problem by 29 percent of respondents followed by speeding (28 percent). Other survey highlights are:

    • 65 percent favor a federal law prodding all states to lower the limit from 0.1O to 0.08 percent BAC
    • 57 percent say they have operated a vehicle under the influence of alcohol
    • 17 percent said they had, in the past week, encouraged someone not to drive because they suspected he/she had been drinking too much
    • 77 percent of those who had encouraged someone not to drink and drive said they were successful in preventing this behavior

    The top 10 factors that discourage Americans from drunk driving are realizing they could: kill or injure others, get a jail sentence, lose their license, kill or injure themselves, pay a substantial fine, have their car impounded, get increased insurance rates, encounter sobriety checkpoints, or lose their job. Advice from a close friend was the 10th reason respondents would avoid drinking and driving.

    The top five methods respondents cited to discourage drunk driving were: requiring driver education courses, encouraging the media to run free public service ads, giving convicted drunk drivers larger fines and longer jail terms, expanding news coverage of drinking and driving, and increasing the use of sobriety checkpoints.

    Coinciding with the release of the Gallup Poll, Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) observed its 20th anniversary at a Sept. 6 rally in Washington, D.C., where 600 people called on Congress to enact pending legislation to lower the legal BAC limit to 0.08 percent in every state.

    MADD also participated in a national conference in Alexandria, Va., to learn how to implement policies and programs to serve the needs of drunk driving victims. General Motors donated $500,000 to MADD to help underwrite the organization's year of programs and projects. Over the next five years, GM expects to contribute a total of $2.5 million.

    This document was last updated on February 25, 2001.

    Back to Table of Contents


    Holiday Safety Tips

    Trees
    Decorations
    Ornaments
    Candles
    Trimmings
    Fireplaces/Wood Burning Stoves
    Shopping Tips
    General

    Back to Index
    Trees


    If you are purchasing an artificial tree check to ensure it is fire resistant

    To tell if the tree is fresh:
    • Color is vibrant
    • Needles are hard to pull from branches
    • Fresh needles are hard to break, they will bend
    • Needles that fall easily from a tree indicate the tree is too dry
    • Trunk will be sticky with resin
    Fresh trees require watering daily and sometimes more often if the environment is dry

    Before setting up the tree cut off at least two inches of the trunk for better water absorption

    Trim away branches at the trunk so the tree will set easily in the stand

    Have a sturdy tree stand, with a wide base or if the stand is the enclosed type place sand in the stand to give the base weight

    Keep the tree away from a fireplace, wood burning stove, radiator or heater

    Place the tree well away from traffic areas and do not block doorways

    Use wires from the tree to the ceiling to secure the tree so it will not topple over onto small children

    If using a large plastic bag for fresh tree removal, keep small children away as these items can potentially result in suffocation


    Back to Index
    Decorations


    Artificial snow sprays can irritate lungs if inhaled, read the directions first

    Simmering pots or incense burners should be out in open areas and watched closely, never leave a simmering pot heating while away from home

    Keep simmering pots out of reach of children

    Keep garland well away from young children as they can become tangled and strangle


    Back to Index
    Ornaments



    Small ornaments are easily ingested by small children and animals and can cause choking, so place these ornaments high on the tree away from the reach of children

    Ornaments, toys and toy parts which are small enough to fit through a paper tissue roll tube can obstruct a child's airway and cause choking

    Glass ornaments can break leaving sharp pieces of the floor, keep them away from children and animals

    Avoid trimmings which look like food or candy when small children are in the home; they may be mistaken for food and children may try to eat them


    Back to Index
    Lights


    Keep light strings high on the tree, children can strangle on the light strings or sustain an electrical burn

    Use lights as directed, indoor lights and outdoor lights are identified on the labels

    Check each set of lights for broken, cracked sockets, frayed or bare wires, or loose connections, discard damaged sets

    Fasten outdoor lights securely to trees, walls, or other firm support to protect from wind damage

    Check outdoor lights frequently for worn areas, frays and splits from the cold weather

    Use no more than three standard-size sets of lights per extension cord

    Do not run extension cords under carpets and rugs, across doorways, or near heaters

    Turn off all lights and decorations when you go to bed or leave the house, lights can short and start fire

    Never use electric lights on a metallic tree

    Keep outside spot lights away from pedestrian areas, these lights become very hot and can cause burns if touched

    Secure outdoor decorations with thin guide-wires to ensure they are not blown over or off the building by strong winds


    Back to Index
    Candles


    Never use lighted candles on a tree or near other evergreens

    Always use non-flammable non-tip candle holders

    Keep candles away from other decorations and wrapping paper

    Place candles away from other decorations and wrapping paper

    Keep candles away from curtains and other combustible items


    Back to Index
    Trimmings


    Use only non-combustible or flame-resistant materials

    Wear gloves and goggles while decorating with spun glass (angel hair) to avoid irritation to eyes and skin

    Choose tinsel or artificial icicles made of plastic or non-leaded metals. Leaded metals are hazardous if ingested by children


    Back to Index
    Fireplaces/Wood Burning Stoves


    Remove all green boughs, papers and other trimmings from the fire place area

    Check to see that the flue is open

    Keep a screen before the fireplace at all times while a fire is burning

    Before closing the flue, be sure that the fire is out completely

    Ensure that a fire is completely out before going to sleep or leaving home

    Teach young children to stay away from fires and heat sources (fireplaces, stoves, candles)

    Keep heat sources at least three feet away from furniture, decorations, bedding, clothing and walls


    Back to Index
    Shopping Tips

    Keep young children secure in shopping carts, use safety belts

    Do not allow children to stand up inside shopping carts or to ride on the front or sides of the cart

    Watch children closely as they can easily pull items from shelves onto themselves

    Do not leave children unattended in shopping carts for even a second

    When buying a bicycle, skate board, roller blades, roller skates or sled: BUY A HELMET TOO

    Buy flame retardant toys and clothing for children


    Back to Index
    General


    Do not drink and drive

    Provide non-alcoholic beverages at parties

    Monitor alcohol consumption of guests and friends

    Make efforts to keep impaired drivers and pedestrians off the roadways

    Check smoke alarms and their batteries

    Have emergency service numbers readily available if not in a 911 community

    Wear your seatbelts and ensure all child occupants are properly restrained in car seats or belts - It's the law


    Back to Table of Contents


    Illinois Booklet Profiles Average DUI Offender

    Illinois Secretary of State Jesse White just released the annaul DUI Fact Book, which contains a compilation of facts, statistics, and information about the status of drunk driving in Illinois.

    In 1999, 637 people died in alcohol-related crashes in Illinois, accounting for 43 percent of the 1,456 total crash fatalities. There were 48,587 driving under the influence (DUI) arrests reported to the secretary of state.

    Also in 1999, more than 91 percent of all drivers arrested for DUI lost their driving privileges. Eighty-two percent of all drivers arrested for DUI are first offenders, while 18 percent have had a previous DUI arrest within the past five years.

    According to the fact book, the average DUI offender is male, 34 years old, arrested between 11 p.m. and 4 a.m. on the weekend, and caught driving with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level of 0.16 percent.

    DUI Fact Book is available on-line at www.cyberdriveillinois.com.

    Back to Table of Contents


    Illinois Legislation Targets Repeat DUI Offenders

    Illinois Gov. George Ryan recently signed legislation increasing penalties for repeat driving under the influence (DUI) offenders - those who drive at twice the legal limit and those who drive drunk with a child in the vehicle.

    All repeat offenders will be required to have Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices, which prevent drunk drivers from starting a vehicle, installed in their cars.

    Ryan also signed a companion bill that makes jail sentences mandatory for individuals who habitually drive on suspended and revoked licenses. In 1999, more than 73,000 people were arrested for this offense. The law allows judges to order the driver's vehicle immobilized by removing the license plates or installing a boot on the vehicle.

    "We believe these laws will have an impact upon alcohol-related traffic fatalities greater than any initiatives that have preceded them," said Brad Falick, executive director of Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD).

    Back to Table of Contents


    Impaired Driving

    In 1998, nearly 42,000 people were killed in traffic crashes and almost 3.2 million moire were injured, at a cost of over $150 billion. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, alcohol was a factor in 39 percent of all fatal traffic crashes in 1998 and seven percent of all crashes that year.

    Thirty-one states have laws that set 0. IO percent blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as the per se limit, making it illegal to drive with a BAC at or above that level. An illegal per se law makes it illegal in and of itself to drive with a BAC at or above the established limit. Under a per se law, a Breathalyzer test alone is sufficient evidence to go forward with a drunk driving charge. Only two states, Massachusetts and South Carolina, do not have a per se law.

    The probability of having a crash rises dramatically when a driver reaches and exceeds 0.08 percent BAC. Through the persistent efforts of Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety, MADD, and other safety organizations, 17 states and the District of Columbia set their BAC limit at 0. 08 percent. A number of additional states are considering lowering their BAC limit to 0.08 percent per se.

    IMPAIRED DRIVING FACTS

    • The 15,935 fatalities in alcohol-related crashes in 1998 represent, on average, one alcohol-related crash fatality every 33 minutes. (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, or NHTSA, 1999)
    • More than 305,000 people were injured in 1998 in crashes in which police reported the presence of alcohol. (NHTSA, 1999)
    • Approximately three out of every ten adults will be involved in an alcohol-related traffic crash at some time in their lives. (NHTSA, 1999)
    • Alcohol-related crashes cost society more than $45 billion a year. Just one alcohol-related crash is estimated to cost approximately $950,000. (NHTSA, 1997)

    0.08 BAC LEVEL FACTS

    • The relative risk of being killed in a single-vehicle crash is 11 times greater at BACs between 0.05 and 0.09 percent than at a BAC of 0.0 percent (no alcohol). (Zador, 1991)
    • The average 170-pound male would need to consume more than four drinks in an hour on an empty stomach to reach a BAC of 0.08 percent. An average 137-pound fem@de would need three drinks in one hour on an empty stomach to reach that level. (NHTSA, 1997)
    • 0.08 percent BAC is a level at which all drivers, even experienced ones, are impaired with respect to critical driving skills. (NHTSA, 1997)
    • Most other industrialized countries set their legal BAC level at .08 percent or lower. The BAC level is .08 in Canada, Austria, Great Britain and Switzerland; .05 in Australia, Finland, Norway and the Netherlands; and .02 in Sweden. (NHTSA, 1997)
    • In 1996, five states that reduced their BAC levels to 0.08 percent saw a 16 percent reduction in alcohol-related fatal crashes in which the fatally injured driver had a 0.08 BAC or higher and an 18 percent reduction for drivers with very high BAC levels of 0. 15 percent or more. (Hingson et al., 1996)
    • An estimated 500-600 lives would be saved every year if ALL states adopted 0. 08 percent BAC laws. (Hingson et al., 1996)
    • A 1995 study analyzing driver involvement in alcohol-related fatal crashes for five states with 0.08 percent BAC limits showed significant decreases in such crashes after implementation of the law in four out of the five states compared with states at 0. I 0 percent BAC laws. (Johnson and Fell, NHTSA, 1995)
    • California experienced a 12 percent reduction in alcohol-related fatalities after it lowered its legal BAC limit to 0.08 percent. Some of this reduction is credited to the administrative license revocation law implemented at the same time. The state also saw an increase in arrests for driving under the influence. (NHTSA, 1997)

    Back to Table of Contents

    Lights on for Life Day

    Lights on for Life Day Poster
    What Is "Lights on for Life"?


    "Lights on for Life" is a one-day nationwide headlight observance in remembrance of persons killed or injured in alcohol-related crashes. The event also serves as a reminder that law enforcement throughout the nation will especially target impaired drivers during the holiday season.

    The event is intended to send a positive message to the community and remind the public that alcohol-related crashes are preventable when people come together to urge fellow citizens to take responsibility for their actions.

    Local communities around the country are encouraged to host their own media events and remind motorists to keep their vehicle headlights on during the day on Friday, December 18, 1998.

    "Lights on for Life" is sponsored by the National 3D Prevention Month Coalition.

    Law enforcement needs your support to combat the impaired driver. 3D Month is an opportunity to provide such support and to encourage your local law enforcement agency to participate in "National Holiday Lifesaver Weekend".

    "Lights on for Life" is consistent with the goals and efforts of 3D Month and serves as an opportunity to involve law enforcement, government, business and the community at large in a combined effort to focus attention on the issue of impaired drivers.

    "Lights on for Life" can be considered the highlight of the many local events your community undertakes during the month of December. You are encouraged to maximize the impact of the nationwide "Lights on for Life" effort by hosting a media event in your own community on December 13th.

    The purpose of the "Lights on for Life" media event is to encourage the motoring public to keep their vehicle headlights on during the day on Friday, December 18, 19987, and to reinforce the horrors associated with impaired driving.

    Many communities have formed coalitions to promote 3D Month within their areas. These coalitions include representatives of law enforcement, MADD, elected officials, traffic safety advocates and businesses.

    For more information on this subject visit the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration website at http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/alcohol/pub/3dplanr.html.

    Back to Table of Contents


    Keys to Keeping Your Friends and Family Alive

    Educating the public about these keys can make the difference between life and death. During this holiday season and throughout the year, encourage your local community to put these keys into practice.

    • Don't drink and drive.
    • Never serve alcoholic beverages to anyone under 21.
    • If you drink, always plan ahead to designate a non-drinking driver.
    • Be a responsible party host:
      • Serve non-alcoholic beverages.
      • Serve high-protein food.
      • Control the amount of alcoholic beverages served - no open bars.
      • Ask alcohol-impaired guests to stay overnight or call a cab to assure them a safe ride home.
      • Take away the keys from an impaired guest.
    • Report suspected impaired drivers to your state or local police
    • Be a positive role model for youth.
    • Ask your Governor and state legislators to support tougher laws, such as administrative license revocation, .08 blood alcohol concentration (BAC) for adult drivers, and zero tolerance laws for drivers under 21.

    Back to Table of Contents


    National Drunk and Drugged Driving Prevention Month Poster


    December is National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month...a time when communities across the country join with the National 3D Prevention Month Coalition to conduct public awareness and enforcement campaigns to prevent impaired driving, The Coalition, a public-private sector partnership, provides a focus for communities interested in participating in National 3D Prevention Month by sponsoring national campaign activities.

    Community support for National 3D Prevention Month has grown dramatically since 1982 when President Reagan signed the first proclamation designating December 9-15 as 3D Awareness Week. Since that time, the National 3D Prevention Month Coalition has witnessed increased resolve among communities to expand existing programs and launch new initiatives.

    August 24, 1998 (Washington, D.C.) - U.S. Transportation Secretary Rodney E. Slater today announced that the percentage of alcohol-related traffic fatalities in the United States dropped to an historic low in 1997. Last year, 38.6 percent or 16,189 of all traffic fatalities were alcohol-related, down from 40.9 percent of 42,065 traffic deaths in 1996 and dramatically lower than the 57.3 percent of 43,945 traffic fatalities in 1982.

    "This is good news but we must continue to do more to ensure that this decline continues," President Clinton said.

    The 1997 figures marks the first time since record-keeping began in 1975 that alcohol-related traffic deaths dropped below 40 percent of the total.

    "Safety is President Clinton's highest transportation priority," Secretary Slater said. "A strong message and tough laws are bringing about an important change in society's attitude toward drunken driving, but we must continue our efforts to reduce the number of these tragedies even further."

    President Clinton advocates tough impaired-driving legislation and has encouraged states to adopt .08 blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as the national standard for drunken driving. The Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, which President Clinton signed June 9, authorized $500 million in incentive grants to states that adopt .08 BAC laws.

    The President also called on states to enact zero tolerance laws for young drivers who drink and drive, and that goal was met in June when South Carolina became the 50th state to do so.

    Alcohol-related deaths among teens aged 15-20 dropped 5 percent from 2,324 in 1996 to 2,209 in 1997, according to figures from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), which is compiled by the department's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).

    "By passing tough laws, states are sending a strong message to teen-aged drivers: It's not cool and it's not legal to drink," said NHTSA Administrator Ricardo Martinez, M.D.

    The FARS also showed that total traffic fatalities dropped slightly to 41,967 in 1997 compared to 42,065 in 1996. Despite the decline, 16,189 people were killed in alcohol-related crashes in 1997.

    The fatality rate remained at 1.7 deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in the face of increased travel, higher speed limits and changes in the vehicle fleet. NHTSA estimated that seat belts, air bags and child safety seats saved 11,904 lives in 1997.

    Reducing the number of alcohol-related fatalities is part of the department's three-pronged comprehensive strategy to reduce the number of traffic fatalities on U.S. roads. In February, 1995, the department, joined by partners in the highway safety effort, set a goal of reducing alcohol-related traffic deaths to 11,000 annually by the year 2005. In April 1998, Secretary Slater added aggressive driving to the department's comprehensive strategy to improve highway safety, ranking it with drunken driving and seat belt use as top highway safety priorities.

    The FARS also shows that:

    Of the 957 under-21 drinking drivers killed in traffic crashes, most (792) were killed in crashes at night.

    The highest percentage of drinking driver deaths, 49.8 percent, was in the 21-34 year old age group. The lowest, 5.9 percent, was among drivers 75 and older.

    Among pedestrians killed by motor vehicles, 34.2 percent had measurable levels of alcohol in their blood; 22.8 percent of fatally injured bicyclists also had been drinking.

    Utah had the lowest percentage of alcohol-related fatalities in 1997, 20.6 percent, followed by New York with 27.4 percent. Kansas and Arkansas were the only other states with alcohol-related fatality rates under 30 percent.

    Among the 15 states with laws setting the threshold for drunken driving at .08 BAC, 10 continued to register declines in alcohol-related fatalities. One state, Kansas, had a dramatic reduction in 1997 to 29.5 percent from 40.2 percent in 1996.

    Further information on the FARS is available on NHTSA's web site, http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov.

    The 3D Prevention Month Coalition has established a number of goals for the 3D Month campaign. They are to:

    Educate The Public About Impaired Driving
    Focus On The Young Adult Drinking Driver
    Educate The Public About Effective Strategies For Taking A Stand Against Impaired Driving
    • Release and heavily promote the latest national and state statistics about the over-representation of 21-34 year old drivers in the impaired driving problem (arrests, crashes, deaths, serious injury).
    • Encourage states to pass tougher laws.
    • Encourage states to strengthen law enforcement efforts and improve alcohol screening and treatment of DUI offenders.
    • Promote local Red Ribbon of Memories events.
    • Promote Lights on for Life Day (Friday, December 18th).
    • Encourage the use of designated drivers. -- Promote tips for safe and responsible party hosting.

    For more information on this subject visit the National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month Coalition Website at http://www.3dmonth.org/ or the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration website at http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/alcohol/pub/3dplanr.html.

    Back to Table of Contents


    NHTSA Update on Alcohol Crash Facts

    Using the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) criteria for Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), it is estimated that an alcohol crash occurs every 32 minutes. NHTSA defines an alcohol-related by a law enforcement agency and involved a vehicle operator or a non-occupant (e.g., pedestrian) with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.01 grams per deciliter (0.01 g/dl) or greater. In 1997, 16,189 alcohol-related fatalities occurred, 38.6% of the total fatalities for the year.

    In other NHTSA statistics, alcohol-related fatalities for large truck operators declined by almost 60%, the largest such decline noted. Nearly one-third of the pedestrians 16 years or older who were killed by automobiles were intoxicated, i.e., had a BAC of 0.01 g/dl. In 1997, 29% of all fatal crashes that took place on weekdays involved alcohol. This percentage increased to 52% on weekends. For all crashes, the alcohol involvement on weekends was 12% and on weekdays, 5%. Alaska had the highest rate of fatal alcohol-related crashes using the FARS criteria and comparing total traffic fatalities to any alcohol involvement. (See Table 1.) Utah had the lowest rate. (See Table 2.)

    In 1996 and 1997, approximately 1.5 million individuals were arrested for drunk or drugged driving. This is a ratio of one out of every 122 licensed vehicle operators.

    For further information on alcohol involvement in traffic fatalities, contact the National Center for Statistics and Analysis, NRD-31, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20590; (800) 934-8517; fax (202) 366-7078 (ask for publication number DOT HS 808 764).

    Back to Table of Contents


    Making the Link between Alcohol and Other Drugs and Impaired Driving, Injury, and Trauma

    The role of alcohol and other drugs in automobile crash deaths and injuries is widely acknowledged. Alcohol and other drugs have also been linked to an array of serious and fatal injuries, including spinal cord injuries, drownings, bicycle crashes, and intentional injury. Intoxication is frequently found in trauma victims, and a history of trauma is a marker for the early identification of alcohol abuse.

    * Alcohol and other drugs are factor in 45, 1% of all fatal automobile crashes and one-fifth of all crashes involving injury. in 1992, impaired driving crashes claimed the lives of more than 17,000 Americans and injured 1.2 million others. Of those killed, close to one-third were under 25 years of age.

    * 70% of attempted suicides involve frequent alcohol and other drug use.

    * Alcohol is associated with between 47% and 65% of adult drownings and with 591/a of fatal falls.

    * A recent study of 1,023 patients admitted to a shock trauma unit (receiving only the most seriously injured accident victims), found that one third had detectable levels of marijuana in their blood.

    * The estimated relative risk of accidental death was 2.5 to 8 times greater among males defined as heavy drinkers or alcohol dependent than among the general population, Alcoholics are nearly 5 times more likely to die in motor vehicle crashes, 16 times more likely to die in falls, and 10 times more likely to become fire or bum victims.

    The impact of alcohol-and other drug-related injury and death takes a tremendous toll on our society. The numbers of potential years of life lost to alcohol-and other drug-related injuries equal those lost to cancer and surpasses those lost to heart disease, the two leading causes of death in the U.S.

    Beyond the tragedy of lives lost, these incidents exact a huge economic cost. Alcohol-related injuries alone cost an estimated $47 billion annually. And, according to a recent study, illnesses and injuries caused by the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs accounted for nearly 40% of the medical costs at one large metropolitan hospital.

    "Half of all injuries could be avoided by not drinking when you are driving, boating operating machinery, feeling angry, or using a firearm". Louis W. Sullivan, M.D., former Secretary of Health and Human Services, March 1992.

    Back to Table of Contents


    Myths and Facts about Alcohol and Driving

    Myths and misconceptions about alcohol and its effects on safe driving are widespread. Knowing the truth may mean the difference between life and death this holiday season and throughout the year. Use your media events, press announcements, organizational newsletters, church bulletins, and other opportunities to help your community learn the facts.

    Myth: "Alcohol is a stimulant."
    Fact: Alcohol is a depressant. It acts on the central nervous system like an anesthetic to lower or depress the activity of your brain.

    Myth: "Drinking coffee sobers me up."
    Fact: Coffee cannot rid your system of alcohol. It just makes you a nervous, wide-awake drunk. Only time reverses impairment.

    Myth: "I always stay away from the hard stuff."
    Fact: Alcohol is alcohol. Beer has the same effect as straight scotch. One 12-ounce beer has as much alcohol as a 1.5-ounce shot of whiskey or a 5-ounce glass of wine.

    Myth: "I'm bigger so I can handle my liquor better."
    Fact: Size is only one factor in how much you can drink. Metabolism, amount of rest, and food intake all play a part in how you handle liquor. Impairment in motor reflexes and judgement can begin with the first drink.

    Myth: "Once I roll down the car window, I'm okay."
    Fact: No amount of fresh, chilly air can reverse impairment. You gain nothing by rolling down a window or turning on the air conditioner.

    Myth: "I just drive slower."
    Fact: Many people do, believing they can actually compensate for being impaired by creeping along at 22 mph. This can be dangerous. Others race along at 75 miles mph. The truth is, impaired drivers are unsafe at any speed.

    Myth: "All I have to do is splash my face with cold water."
    Fact: Splash all you like. You can even take a cold shower. It may make you cleaner, but it won't sober you up or make you a safe driver.

    Myth: "A drink or two makes me a better driver."
    Fact: Even one drink can cloud your thinking, dim your vision, and slow your reflexes. Small amounts of alcohol can impair your judgment and put you and others on the road at risk of death or disabling injury.

    Back to Table of Contents


    NHTSA Presents 1999 Statistics of Alcohol Involvement in Fatal Crashes

    In 1999, 30 percent of all traffic fatalities involved at least one driver or non-occupant with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0. IO percent or greater, according to a new report by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (see chart).

    Occupant fatalities resulting from crashes involving an intoxicated driver or non-occupant totaled 10,155 in 1999. Thirty-nine percent of the fatalities in single-vehicle crashes involved an intoxicated driver or non-occupant, compared with 19 percent of the fatalities in multi-vehicle crashes. An Highway & Vehicle / Safety Report estimated 38 percent of the fatalities in non-occupant crashes involved an intoxicated driver or non-occupant.

    The data also show:

    • 63 percent of the fatally injured drivers in single-vehicle crashes on weekend nights were drunk
    • overall, male drivers involved in fatal crashes were twice as likely as female drivers to be drunk (20 vs. 10 percent, respectively)
    • drivers between 21 and 24 years old had the highest rate of intoxication (27 percent), followed by those between 25 and 29 (24 percent)

    In 1982, 46 percent of all fatalities occurred in crashes that involved an intoxicated active participant. In 1982-99, estimated reductions in the proportion of intoxicated drivers in fatal crashes were 45 percent for drivers of passenger cars, 43 percent for drivers of light trucks and vans, 60 percent for medium trucks, 75 percent for heavy trucks, and 32 percent for motorcycles.

    Motorcycle riders continue to have a high rate of intoxication in fatal crashes, with 28 percent having levels of at least 0.10 percent in 1999, compared with 20 percent for drivers of light trucks and vans

    Back to Table of Contents


    Non-Alcoholic "Mocktails"

    During the holiday season and anytime, offer your guests a choice of drinks, not just alcohol. Serve various types of juices, non-alcoholic punches and cocktails, tea, coffee, and soft drinks.

    Be creative! Choose from the following list of drinks or create your own non-alcoholic beverages. Offer your guests party beverages, punches, fruit drinks, and coffees.

    Mocktails
    Punches
    Coffees

    Mocktails


    Citrus Collins
    • 2 oz. orange or grapefruit juice
    • 1 oz. lemon juice
    • 1 oz. simple syrup*
    Fill a 10-12 oz. glass with ice. Add ingredients above and then fill with club soda. Garnish with 1/2 orange slice and a cherry.

    * HINT: Simple Syrup...In a saucepan, combine 2 cups sugar and 1 cup water. Bring to a boil, stirring until sugar dissolves. Boil gently for 5 minutes. Makes about 2 cups. Will keep 6 months in the refrigerator.

    Designated Driver's Delight

    • 2 1/2 oz. orange juice
    • 1 1/4 oz. pineapple juice
    • 1 1/4 oz. cranberry juice
    • 2 scoops vanilla ice cream
    • 3-4 frozen strawberries

    Mix in a blender until smooth. Serve in a hurricane glass with an orange slice and a strawberry.

    The Enforcer

    • Fresh brewed coffee
    • Whipped cream
    • Chocolate sprinkles
    • Sugar cubes
    • Cinnamon
    Pour coffee into a mug and stir in 2 sugar cubes and a dash of cinnamon. Top with whipped cream and chocolate sprinkles.

    Faux Kir

    For each serving, half fill a large wine glass with chilled white grape juice. Stir in 1 tbsp. nonalcoholic grenadine syrup. Fill with cold raspberry ginger ale.

    Mai-Tai

    • 1/2 cup pineapple juice
    • 1/4 cup club soda
    • 1 tablespoon grenadine syrup
    • 1/4 cup orange juice
    • 1 tablespoon cream of coconut
    In shaker or tall glass, combine ingredients; shake or stir to blend. Add crushed ice.

    The Natural

    • 1/2 banana
    • 6 strawberries
    • 2 oz. apple juice
    • 1/4 apple, with skin
    • 2 oz. fresh pineapple
    • 1/2 cup ice

    Blend all ingredients. Serve in a wine glass; garnish with fresh strawberries

    New Year's Eve Kiss

    Pour 2 oz. passion fruit juice in a champagne flute. Fill with club soda.

    Punches

    Lemon-Strawberry Punch

    • 1 can (6 oz.) frozen orange juice concentrate, thawed
    • 1 package frozen sliced strawberries
    • 1 can (6 oz.) frozen lemonade concentrate
    • 1 quart carbonated water
    • 1 quart ginger ale
    • sliced bananas (garnish)
    • sliced oranges or lemons (garnish)

    Combine frozen lemonade concentrate, the strawberries (half-thawed with juice), and the orange juice. Place in a punchbowl with ice. Just before serving, add carbonated water and ginger ale. Garnish with thin slices of orange or lemon. 20 servings.

    Red Delicious Punch

    Pour 2 bottles of nonalcoholic sparkling cider into a punch bowl. Mix in 1 quart of cranberry juice. Float a frozen ice ring and garnish with sprigs of mint.

    Sangaree Punch

    • 1 quart cranberry juice cocktail
    • Cracked ice
    • Orange slices
    • 1 cup grape juice
    • Lemon Slices
    • Maraschino cherries

    Combine cranberry juice cocktail and grape juice; chill. At serving time, pour mixture over cracked ice in glasses. Garnish each with lemon and orange slices and a maraschino cherry. 5 servings.

    Coffees

    The C & C Express

    • 6 oz. chocolate chip ice cream
    • 1/4 cup brewed espresso coffee
    • 1/4 cup half-and-half
    • 3 Tbsp. cream of coconut

    Mix ingredients in a blender on low speed until consistency is smooth. Pour into an 8-once servings glass. Top with whipped cream and chocolate shavings. Garnish with a cookie and serve at once.

    Coffee Eggnog

    • 2 eggs, separated
    • 1 tablespoon vanilla extract
    • 1/3 cup sugar
    • 1/3 cup instant coffee
    • dash salt
    • 2 cups milk, chilled
    • 1 cup heavy cream, whipped
    • shaved, unsweetened chocolate

    In a small bowl with electric mixer at high speed, beat egg whites until soft peaks form. Gradually beat in sugar until stiff peaks form. In large bowl, beat egg yolks until lemon colored. Gradually beat in coffee, salt, vanilla, milk and 3/4 cup water. Stir in egg-white mixture and whipped cream. Mix well. Serve well chilled, with chocolate sprinkled over each serving. Makes 12 servings.

    Viennese Coffee

    • 1/4 cup whipping cream
    • 1/2 tsp. grated orange peel
    • 1 Tbsp. powdered sugar
    • 1/2 tsp. vanilla extract
    • 4 cinnamon sticks
    • 3 cups very strong coffee (may use decaffeinated)

    Combine cream, sugar, and vanilla. Beat until stiff. Pour coffee into four cups. Float whipped cream mixture on top. Garnish with orange peel. Use cinnamon sticks as servers.

    Thanks to the Washington Regional Alcohol Program, the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration for these recipes.

    Back to Table of Contents


    Rating the States 2000 - Composite State Grades

    The effort to stop drunk driving has never been more successful than it is today. Yet, never has it been as threatened by complacency, increasing opposition to lifesaving countermeasures from the alcohol and hospital industries, and the transfer of more authority to states coupled with less oversight on highway safety programs. So it is very important to formally highlight the limitations in drunk driving laws and programs while also recognizing states' progress in reducing alcohol-related fatal crashes.

    MADD's Rating the States (RTS) program helps evaluate the status of drunk-driving and underage drinking problems nationally and at the state level. It highlights the need for legislation and programs to make existing laws more effective. It also can stimulate development of plans to address new challenges in the war against drunk driving.

    The following are the Composite State Grades for this program:

    A-

    Arizona
    California
    Florida
    North Carolina
    B+

    Kansas
    Maryland
    New York
    Ohio
    Utah
    B

    Alabama
    Arkansas
    Illinois
    Maine
    Minnesota
    Oregon
    Tennessee
    Virginia
    B-

    Georgia
    Idaho
    Indiana
    Iowa
    Kentucky
    Michigan
    Mississippi
    Missouri
    New Mexico
    Wisconsin
    C+

    Connecticut
    Hawaii
    Massachusetts
    Nebraska
    Nevada
    Oklahoma
    Pennsylvania
    Washington
    West Virginia
    C

    Alaska
    Colorado
    Montana
    New Hampshire
    North Dakota
    Rhode Island
    South Carolina
    South Dakota
    Texas
    C-

    Delaware
    Louisiana
    New Jersey
    Vermont
    D+

    Wyoming

    This document was last updated on May 30, 1999.

    Back to Table of Contents


    Secretary Slater Announces Another Year of Progress for Highway Safety

    (Wednesday, September 6, 2000) U.S. Transportation Secretary Rodney E. Slater today announced that alcohol-related traffic fatalities dropped again to a new historical low and represented a smaller percentage of the total traffic fatalities, 38 percent in 1999 compared to 39 percent in 1998. Secretary Slater said that later today President Clinton will send a letter to Congress strongly urging them to adopt.08 blood alcohol content as the law of the land.

    Secretary Slater made the announcement with Members of Congress and the transportation industry in a salute to Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) for 20 years of accomplishment in helping to reduce alcohol-related crashes and fatalities.

    "America's highways are safer than ever and I am encouraged by the progress we've made," Secretary Slater said. "These encouraging statistics reflect continuing, steady improvement in highway safety under the leadership of President Clinton and Vice President Gore, for whom safety is the highest transportation priority. "

    "Last year, 234 fewer Americans died in alcohol-related crashes," said NHTSA Administrator Dr. Sue Bailey. "That is 234 American families who are not grieving, children who are not missing parents, or schools who are not disrupted by tragedy. Nonetheless, alcohol-related fatalities and injuries remain intolerably high."

    Secretary Slater also said that seat belt use has reached an all time high of 71 percent nationwide this year, another steady improvement on an upward trend from the 58 percent measured in the first national seat belt use survey completed in 1994.

    In announcing results of a new seat belt survey and the 1999 Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) assessment, Secretary Slater also said that President Clinton's goal of reducing fatalities among children five and under by 15 percent, set in 1997, was met in 1999, one year ahead of the President's target date. Fatalities in this group decreased to 555 In 1999 from 652 in 1996.

    The 1999 FARS assessment by the U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) found that, while population, total registered vehicles, and miles traveled all increased in 1999, the fatality rate remained virtually unchanged from 1998. The fatality rate per I 00 million vehicle miles traveled was 1.6 in both 1998 and 1999.

    Total fatalities in 1999 were 41,611 compared to 41,501 In 1998. The total number of persons injured in crashes increased slightly from an estimated 3.19 million in 1998 to 3.24 million in 1999.

    Secretary Slater credited the continuing hard work and support of the public-private partnerships for another year of progress. The USDOT is a partner with the Air Bag and Seat Belt Safety Campaign, a coalition of government, auto manufacturers, insurance companies, safety organizations, and professional associations who, in turn, work with state and local governments, law enforcement health professionals, teachers and others to increase seat belt and child safety seat use.

    The FARS for 1999 also indicates that:

    • Seat belts and child safety seats clearly save lives. Fifty-seven percent of passenger car and light truck occupants killed in 1999 were unbelted.
    • Pedestrian deaths dropped to 4,906 in 1999 from 5,228 in 1998.
    • Alcohol-related fatalities dropped from 16,020 in 1998 to 15,786 in 1999.
    • Alcohol-related fatalities among youths ages 15 - 20 increased slightly from 2,219 in 1998 to 2,238 in 1999.
    • Fatalities involving large trucks dropped slightly from 5,395 in 1998 to 5,362 in 1999.
    • Passenger car fatalities dropped 1.8 percent to 20,818 in 1999 compared to 1998 figures. In contrast occupant fatalities in light trucks and vans (LTVS) rose 5 percent.
    • For LTVS, which include sport utility vehicles, deaths from single vehicle rollovers increased 8.4 percent in 1999 to 4,3 52 fatalities.
    • Motorcycle deaths were up 7.8 percent from 2,294 in 1998 to 2,472 in 1999.
    • Speed-related fatalities increased slightly from 12,509 in 1998 to 12,628 in 1999.
    • School bus occupant fatalities increased from 6 in 1998 to 10 in 1999, continuing the overall average of approximately 10 per year for the past several years. Total school bus-related fatalities increased from 122 in 1998 to 154 in 1999.
    • School bus-related fatalities result from incidents around school buses and do not include school bus occupants.

    The new survey results from NHTSAs June 2000 National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS) also found that:

    • Seat belt use increased in all categories compared to the previous 1999 NOPUS study.
    • Seat belt use increased in all geographic regions of the country. The largest increases were in the Midwest, which was up more than 8 percentage points.
    • Seat belt use increased among occupants in all classes of vehicles.- passenger cars, pick-ups, vans and suvs.
    • Seventeen states and the District of Columbia have primary seat belt laws, they averaged 77 percent seat belt use, while states without primary laws averaged 63 percent. This substantial difference shows dramatically the benefits of primary belt use laws.

    Other recent seat belt use surveys have recorded dramatic increases in some states with new primary laws or highly visible law enforcement or both. Examples include:

    • Michigan, which recorded seat belt use at 84 percent, an increase of nearly 14 percentage points in less than six months after the passage of its primary law.
    • New York, where the State Police reported seat belt use at 86 percent, up 5 percent over a similar 1999 study, as a result of highly visible, state-wide enforcement of a primary law.

    NHTSA collects crash statistics from the 50 states and the District of Columbia to produce the annual FARS assessment. The final report will be available later this year. Additional information is available on the Internet at www.nhtsa.dot.gov.

    The margin of error on the NOPUS seat belt survey is plus or minus three percentage points.

    Back to Table of Contents


    NTSB: Stricter Laws Could Combat Hard-Core Drinking Drivers

    The National Transportation Safety Board just released a report that identifies the highway safety problem involving hard-core drinking drivers and proposes solutions. The report also includes provisions mandated by Congress in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-2 1) and recommendations to the states and Department of Transportation.

    Hard-core drinking drivers are repeat offender drinking drivers who have had prior convictions or arrests for driving while impaired (DWI) and drivers who have had a high blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.15 percent or higher. The legal limit in the states is either 0.1O or 0.08 percent.

    In 1983-98, at least 137,338 people died and 99,812 were injured in crashes involving hard-core drinking drivers. In 1998 alone, hard-core drinking drivers were involved in a minimum of 6,370 highway fatalities, according to NTSB.

    NTSB believes a model program to reduce hardcore drinking driving should include the following:

    1. frequent and well-publicized statewide sobriety checkpoints that include checking for valid drivers' licenses
    2. vehicle sanctions to restrict or separate hard-core drinking drivers from their vehicles, including license plate actions, vehicle immobilization, impoundment, ignition interlocks, etc.
    3. state and community cooperative programs involving driver licensing agencies, law enforcement officers, judges, and probation officers to enforce DWI suspension and revocation
    4. legislation requiring DWI offenders maintain a zero BAC while operating a motor vehicle
    5. legislation that defines a high BAC as an aggravated DWI offense that requires strong intervention similar to that ordinarily prescribed for repeat DWI offenders
    6. as alternatives to confinement, programs to reduce hard-core drinking driver recidivism that include home detention with electronic monitoring and/or intensive probation supervision
    7. legislation restricting the plea bargaining of a DWI offense to a lesser, nonalcohol-related offense and requiring the reasons for DWI charge reductions be entered into the public record
    8. elimination of the use of diversion programs that permit erasing, deferring, or otherwise purging the DWI offense record or that allow the offender to avoid license suspension
    9. administrative license revocation for BAC test failure and refusal
    10. a DWI record retention and DWI offense enhancement look-back period of at least 10 years
    11. individualized sanction programs for hard-core DWI offenders that rely on effective countermeasures for use by courts that hear DWI cases

    As a result of its study, NTSB recommends that the states and District of Columbia establish programs that reduce alcohol-related crashes, injuries, and fatalities caused by hard-core drinking drivers. These programs should include items like those in the NTSB model program.

    NTSB recommends that DOT evaluate modifications to TEA-21 so that it can be more effective in assisting the states to reduce hard-core drinking driving. DOT should also recommend changes to Congress as appropriate. Specific considerations should include:

    • a revised definition of repeat offender to include administrative actions on DWI offenses
    • mandatory treatment for hard-core offenders
    • a minimum period of 1O years for records retention and DWI offense enhancement
    • administratively imposed vehicle sanctions for hard-core drinking drivers
    • elimination of community service as an alternative to incarceration
    • inclusion of house arrest with electronic monitoring as an alternative to incarceration

    This document was last updated on February 25, 2001.

    Back to Table of Contents


    Stronger Laws Can Reduce Alcohol-Related Traffic Deaths

    New multistate studies by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration indicate that a combination of stricter laws, including 0.08 percent blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits, can significantly reduce alcohol-related traffic deaths.

    "Stricter laws and tougher enforcement of drunk driving laws will save lives and prevent injuries on our highways," said Department of Transportation secretary Rodney Slater.

    Currently, 40 states have administrative license revocation (ALR) laws, 16 have adopted 0.08 percent BAC limits, and other state legislatures are considering similar measures. ALR laws allow police to immediately suspend the license of a driver who is arrested for driving while under the influence and fails an alcohol test.

    One study estimated that about 925 lives could be saved each year if all 50 states had both 0.08 percent BAC laws have reduced fatal crashes involving drivers who have been drinking. Researchers estimate that these laws saved 257 lives in 1997 alone.

    The reductions involving drivers with BAC's above 0.10 percent were just as great as those among low BAC drivers, averaging about 8 percent. If all 50 states had .08 percent BAC laws in 1997, one study estimated, 590 additional lives could have been saved.

    Vermont, Kansas, North Carolina, Florida, and New Mexico experienced a significant reduction in alcohol related fatalities bases on 0.08 percent BAC laws. Virginia and California registered reductions following adoption of 0.08 percent BAC and ALR laws. Utah also had declines in alcohol-related fatalities, but the drop was not statistically significant.

    One of the studies found little effect of a 0.08 percent BAC law in North Carolina even though it documented a modest reduction in alcohol-related deaths in the state in a 39-month period following the passage of legislation in 1993. A major reason is that North Carolina has an aggressive enforcement program and the 0.08 percent BAC law was one in a series of steps contributing to a decrease in alcohol-related deaths that began in 1987.

    Last year, Slater announced that the percentage of alcohol-related traffic fatalities in 1997 when only 16,189 people died was the lowest since record keeping began in 1975. President Clinton's goal is to cut these deaths to 11,000 by 2005.

    Summaries of the three studies are available on the NHTSA website, http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/new.

    This document was last updated on May 27, 1999.

    Back to Table of Contents


    Traffic Deaths Tied to Alcohol at Record Low

    According to preliminary data compiled by NHTSA, alcohol-related traffic deaths dropped to a record low in 1998. Alcohol was involved in 15,936 traffic deaths last year, while in 1997 the number was 16,189, or 38.5 % of all traffic deaths. Last year’s number was the lowest since the federal government began keeping records in 1975.

    Overall, 41,480 people were killed on the nation’s roads in 1998, down from 42,103 in 1997. The 1997 figure is a slight increase from 1996 when 42,085 people were killed. Of those killed last year, 62% were not wearing seat belts. The number of people killed in truck-related crashes fell to 5,302 last year from 5,398 in 1997.

    NHTSA’s numbers are based on fatal analysis reports completed in all 50 state4s and the District of Columbia. These numbers will be adjusted before NHTSA releases the final report this fall.

    This document was posted on January 7, 2000.

    Back to Table of Contents


    Young Adult Drinking Drivers (21- to 34-year-olds)

    Young legal drinkers, ages 21- to 34-years-old, are responsible for more alcohol-related fatal crashes than any other age group. The existing data confirm that drivers in this age group:

    • Comprise more than half of all the impaired drivers involved in alcohol-related fatal crashes
    • Are responsible for more alcohol-related fatal crashes than any other age group
    • Have the highest BACs in fatal crashes
    • Are about twice as likely as other drivers to have experienced a prior crash
    • Are four times more likely to have had their licenses suspended or revoked
    • Are the most resistant to changing drinking and driving behavior

    Back to Table of Contents


    1999 FARS Data: Alcohol-Related Fatalities Drop, Safety Belt Use Up

    Recent Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data indicate that alcohol-related traffic fatalities hit an all-time low in 1999-38 percent compared to 39 percent in 1998.

    In response to the preliminary data, President Clinton wrote a letter to Congress urging passage of the 0.08 percent blood alcohol concentration (BAC) provision in the fiscal year 2001 transportation appropriations bill. "We are still losing over 15,700 American lives in alcohol-related crashes every year ... enacting a standard of 0.08 BAC could save an estimated 500 lives a year," he wrote.

    The data show over 230 fewer people died last year than did the year before. Safety belt use also reached an all-time high of 71 percent, continuing the upward trend from the 58 percent measured in the first national safety belt use survey in 1994.

    The Clinton Administration's goal of reducing fatalities among children aged 5 and younger by 15 percent was met in 1999, one year ahead of the target date. Fatalities in this group decreased to 555 in 1999 from 652 in 1996.

    Even though population, total registered vehicles, and miles traveled increased in 1999, the fatality rate remained static from 199 8. The rate per I 00 million vehicle miles traveled (VMT) was 1.6 in both 1998 and 1999. Total fatalities were 41,611 compared to 41,501 In 1998. The total number of persons injured increased from an estimated 3.19 million in 1998 to 3.24 million in 1999.

    The FARS data also revealed:

    • 57 percent of passenger car and light truck occupants killed in 1999 were unbelted
    • pedestrian deaths dropped to 4,906 in 1999 from 5,228 in 1998
    • fatalities involving large trucks dropped slightly from 5,395 in 1998 to 5,362 in 1999
    • occupant fatalities in passenger cars dropped 1.8 percent to 20,818 in 1999; occupant fatalities in light trucks and vans (LTVs) rose 5 percent
    • for LTVs, including sport-utility vehicles (SUVs), deaths from single-vehicle rollovers increased 8.4 percent in 1999 to 4,352 fatalities
    • speed-related fatalities increased slightly from 12,509 in 1998 to 12,628 in 1999
    • school bus occupant fatalities increased from six in 1998 to 10 in 1999; total school bus-related fatalities increased from 122 in 1998 to 154 in 1999

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration also just released the results of its National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS). The survey found that safety belt use increased in all categories compared to the previous study in 1999. The largest increases were in the Midwest, where usage was up more than 8 percentage points.

    Safety belt use increased among occupants in all classes of vehicles: passenger cars, pickups, vans, and SUVS. States with primary safety belt laws averaged 77 percent belt use, while states without the law averaged 63 percent. In particular, Michigan recorded belt use at 84 percent-a 14 percent increase after the passage of the primary law.

    NHTSA collects crash data from the 50 states and District of Columbia to produce the annual FARS assessment. The final report will be available later this year. For more information, visit the NHTSA website, www.nhtsa.dot.gov.

    This document was last updated on February 25, 2001.

    Return to Table on Contents


    The information on the Loyola University Health System (LUHS) Web site is for educational purposes only. It is presented in summary form in order to impart general information relating to certain diseases, ailments, physical conditions and their treatments. The information provided through the LUHS Web site should not be used for diagnosing or treating a health problem or a disease, nor is it a substitute for professional care. Should you have any health-care related questions or suspect you have a health problem, you should consult your health care provider.

      @1995 - 2001 Loyola University Health System.  All rights reserved.
     Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Privacy Policy


    Loyola University Medical Center Injury Prevention Program
    |
    Loyola University Health System | Email Site Administrator

    Home | Transportation | Falls | Home and Leisure Safety | Fire/Burns | Poisons | Fire Arms | Water Safety